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APPENDIX E: Introduction to the Scientific Method

Date of publication: 2017-07-09 05:42

Ioannidis is currently mining the PubMed database for insights into how authors across many fields are using P values and other statistical evidence. “A cursory look at a sample of recently published papers,” he says, “is convincing that P values are still very, very popular.”

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6755s : Benjamin Franklin discovered that lightning is electrical. He also contributed to the study of oceanography and meteorology. The understanding of chemistry also evolved during this century as Antoine Lavoisier, dubbed the father of modern chemistry, developed the law of conservation of mass.

Scientific Method - BrainPOP

There are many types of ``pseudo-scientific'' theories which wrap themselves in a mantle of apparent experimental evidence but that, when examined closely, are nothing but statements of faith. The argument , cited by some creationists, that science is just another kind of faith is a philosophic stance which ignores the trans-cultural nature of science. Science's theory of gravity explains why both creationists and scientists don't float off the earth. All you have to do is jump to verify this theory - no leap of faith required.

MONTESSORI METHOD - University of Pennsylvania

Children of four or five should be taught early how [Page 687] carefully the seeds must be thrown away and how the fruits are peeled. Afterwards, the child so educated may be promoted to the honour of receiving a fine fruit intact, and he will know how to eat it properly.

After this study of the methods in use throughout Europe I concluded my experiments upon the deficients of Rome, and taught them throughout two years. I followed Sé guin's book, and also derived much help from the remarkable experiments of Itard.

The meats most adapted to children are so-called white meats, that is, in the first place, chicken, then veal also the light flesh of fish, (sole, pike, cod).

The third quality of the lesson is its objectivity. The lesson must be presented in such a way that the personality of the teacher shall disappear. There shall remain in evidence only the object to which she wishes to call the attention of the child. This brief and simple lesson must be considered by the teacher as an explanation of the object and of the use which the child can make of it.

The child would take the other two meals in his own home, that is, the morning breakfast and the supper, which latter must be very light for children so that shortly after they may be ready to go to bed. On these meals it would be well to give advice to mothers, urging them to help complete the hygienic work of the "Children's Houses," to the profit of their children.

Milk and Eggs. These are foods which not only contain nitrogenous substances in an eminently digestible form, but they have the so-called enzymes which facilitate assimilation into the tissues, and, hence, in a particular way, favour the growth of the child. And they answer so much the better this last most important condition if they are fresh and intact, keeping in themselves, one may say, the life of the animals which produced them.

I strongly recommend for children a soup of rice boiled in broth or milk also cornmeal broth, provided it be seasoned with abundant butter, but not with cheese. (The porridge form polenta, really cornmeal mush, is to be highly recommended on account of the long cooking.)

You would find out that, due to the angle at which the world was tilted, your part of the world was further away from the Sun in the winter than in the summer?

The poor should know how much more wholesome is a broth made from remnants of stale bread, than soups of coarse spaghetti often dry and seasoned with meat juice. Such soups are most indigestible for little children.

With God, we have reached at the conclusion of the analytic process the starting point of the synthetic presentation that Descartes gives in his  Replies to the  Objections. In that synthetic presentation, the sequence ends with the conclusion (theorem) that what is clear and distinct must be true.

Bread. From what we have said about soups, it may be inferred that bread is an excellent food for the child. It should be well selected the crumb is not very digestible, but it can be utilised, when it is dry, to make a bread broth but if one is to give the child simply a piece of bread to eat, it is well to offer him the crust, the end of the loaf. Bread sticks are excellent for those who can afford them.

Let us suppose, for example, that the teacher wishes to teach to a child the two colours, red and blue. She desires to attract the attention of the child to the object. She says, therefore, "Look at this." Then, in order to teach the colours, she says, showing him the red, "This is red ," raising her voice a little and pronouncing the word "red" slowly and clearly then showing him the other colour, "This is blue." In order to make sure that the child has understood, she says to him, "Give me the red," "Give me the blue." Let us suppose that the child in following this last direction makes a mistake. The teacher does not repeat and does not insist she smiles, gives the child a friendly caress and takes away the colours.

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